In 1998, Winkelman studied seven societies that practiced “legitimate human sacrifice which was a form of normative behavior, involving propitiation, as opposed to malevolent human sacrifice”(Winkelman,1998), and who practiced human sacrifice within the time frame of 1750 B.C. to the present (Winkelman,1998 p. 5, 11). “All seven cases of human sacrifice were found in societies with a high reliance upon agriculture, with sedentary and relatively permanent residence patterns…and relied upon domestic animals for food sources, but were not pastoral societies, and did not use milk products” (Winkelman, 1998. p. 6).
Additionally, six of the seven societies had priests, who acted as “elite sociopolitical functionaries and had roles in the communal religious activities associated with propitiation and calendric agricultural rituals” (Winkelman, 1998, p.5). Winkelman concluded that “human sacrifice was significantly and positively associated with the population pressure measures based upon total food supplies, adequacy of food storage, and meat protein” (Winkelman, 1998. p. 7).
Additionally, in a 2004 NASA study regarding Mayan agriculture, irrigation, and deforestation, Michon Scott (2004) concluded that because Mesoamerica was so densely populated around 800AD, that slash and burn agriculture could not possibly have supported the Mayan society’s food requirements, yet he gives no solution as to how Mesoamerican societies could have adequately provided food for such a dense population within a rain forest environment, with inadequate water supply, extremely poor limestone soils—“unsuitable for agriculture” (Scott, 2004).
Therefore, by combining the information from Winkelman and Scott’s studies, it is reasonable to infer that the pressure to cultivate high yield crops might well have spurred a more pragmatic and less religious reason for the Elites to impose blood sacrifice—might they have needed to obtain the blood and bones for crop fertilization?
Rich, fertile soil is a necessary requirement for growing healthy crops, and in Success with Organic Vegetables, Yvonne Cuthbertson (2006) stated: “Soil constitutes most likely to be in short supply are nitrogen, phosphate, and potash. Nitrogen is known as the leaf maker…phosphate is the root maker, and potash is essential for flowers and fruit” (Cuthbertson, 2006). Could this be the meaning behind the Mesoamerican flowery wars, which were fought to acquire enemies for use as sacrificial victims?
Cuthbertson went on to explain that the phosphate in bone-meal is “released slowly, aiding seed germination, stimulating root and pod growth, and promoting early ripening of roots and fruit…and dried blood is 12-13% nitrogen and is a fast acting fertilizer…”(Cuthbertson, 2006). Although Winkelman did not suggest that sacrificial blood was used as fertilizer, the essential findings of his study seem to connect blood rituals with food supply anxieties; “The magnitude of their [Aztec] sacrifice and cannibalism may reflect their extreme conditions” (Winkelman, 1998. p. 17). And, in comparison to “other societies with human sacrifice, the Aztecs were …the only society in the sample with a high risk for famine…had the highest population density, and the highest levels of overall warfare for land and resources”(Winkelman, 1998. p. 17).
To be continued….
Scott, M. (2004), Mayan mysteries: global hydrology resource center. Retrieved from http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Maya/
Winkelman, M. (1998) Aztec human sacrifice: Cross-cultural assessment of the ecological hypothesis. Ethnology, 37(3), 285.